A software development life cycle (SDLC) consists of steps that give individuals an understanding of the software development process. How particular software will be ideated, then developed according to the need of the business to convert them into functions that help in meeting the business requirements. A professional software engineer must have extensive knowledge to know which SDLC model they need to choose based on the needs of the clients. Expensive models in software engineering and other types are available for software engineers. They just need to select a good one for their clients.

The types of SDLC models are waterfall model, v-shaped model, evolutionary prototyping model, spiral method, iterative and incremental method, and agile development. Doing a PGDM in Business Analytics is a good way of understanding the different models in software engineering.

Waterfall model

The waterfall model in software engineering has a linear and sequence-wise flow. In this model, the progress can be seen flowing downwards through the different phases in software development. One can begin a new phase after completing the previous phase. This is the widely used model. This is used for those projects that do not need changing the requirements frequently. This is easy to explain to the client due to the structural flow. The different stages in the project are defined clearly. The verification at the different stages ensures lesser mistakes. 

V-shaped model

The v model in software engineering is an expensive model. This model can be called an extension of the waterfall model discussed before. In this model, the phases do not follow linear sequences. Instead, they are bent in an upward manner after the completion of the implementation and the coding phases. This leads to the formation of a V-Shape. However, there is a major difference with the Waterfall model as early test planning is done in the V-shaped model.

The V-shaped model in software engineering is mostly used for those projects where the client’s software needs are well defined in advance. This helps the developers to complete the model quickly and also satisfies the needs of the clients.

This is also a simple and user-friendly model. The different phases have specific outcomes. The verification completed in the early stages helps in the early detection of problems and errors.

Prototyping model

In this model, the software engineer creates prototypes of the different software applications. For example, the software engineer will develop an unfinished version of the software program for the client. This is done in software development for visualizing the different components of the software and whether they are meeting the needs of the clients. This also reduces the communication gap with the clients. When the final prototype is developed by the software engineer, the needs of the client are met. 

There are different kinds of prototyping, namely Throwaway prototyping, Evolutionary prototyping, Incremental prototyping, and Extreme Prototyping. 

  • In Throwaway prototyping, the prototypes created are discarded and are not part of the final software created by the developer.
  • For Evolutionary prototyping, the different prototypes you make are part of the final product.
  • In Incremental prototyping, the final product is made as separate prototypes. In the end, they are all merged for the client.
  • For Extreme prototyping, it is mainly used for making web applications. In the first step, HTML pages are made, then the screens will be programmed and lastly, the services are made functional.

This can be used in the software development life cycle of any model. This must be chosen if you interact with the client. Since there is an interaction with the client, one reduces time and money spent on the development. There is greater involvement of the client, and this reduces misunderstandings regarding development.

Spiral model

This model is a combination of designing and prototyping in different stages. This has been done in a bid to combine the benefits of both the concepts- the waterfall model and the prototype model. The spiral model is favored more than the other models because this can be used for expensive, large, and even complicated projects. This model uses many phases similar to the waterfall model. This is also in the same order. This is only different in the fields like planning, assessment of risks, building prototypes, and simulations.

The spiral model in software engineering is favored when large systems and applications are to be considered.

With this model, the developers can involve themselves at the earliest. One can easily manage the risks and develop the system as per the phases. The budget is affordable as important issues are discovered beforehand. This makes it a realistic model for many software developers all around the world.

Iterative and Incremental model

This model is created for overcoming the drawbacks of the waterfall model. The software developer begins the model with early planning and finishes it by deploying the cyclic interactions in the middle part. The basic aim behind developing this model is to make a system that will have repeated cycles (iterative) and in small parts at one time (incremental). This will allow the software developers to take advantage of what they learned during the software development of the early parts of the software. This is also equipped with a mini V-shaped or mini waterfalls model.

This model is used for shrink-wrap applications and large systems for small segments. This can also be used for systems with separate components like the ERP system. This can begin from the budget that is considered as the first iteration and then continue with the inventory module and so on.

This model gives the business value in the early stages of the software development cycle. This also ensures better usage of resources. Project issues can be detected early, and changes can be made early on. It focuses more on customer value than the other models. The changes that can be accommodated helps in the better creation of the model.

Agile model

The agile model in software engineering focuses on the iterative and incremental development process. In this model, the teams work on collaborations,the client’s requirements are met and solutions are provided accordingly by the software developer. 

The agile model is very effective to use with any project. However, this requires a higher level of engagement from the customers, and it has to be interactive. This can also be used by the software developer when the client needs any functional development of the project in three weeks. This is also done when the client’s needs are not clear for the developer to understand. With this process, you will get valuable software that can increase the satisfaction of the clients.

With this model, the software developer can reduce the time needed for availing of the different features. There is no doubt or guesswork in software development simply because there is a space for good communication and great inputs from the clients. With this model, you can get the best quality software in the least possible time.

These are the different models of software development life cycle that a software developer must know about. This will enable them to work in a better manner and also satisfy the needs of the clients by making superior quality products. Doing a PGDM in Business Analytics is a great way of sharpening these skills and understanding better the world of software programming.